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Ionic apps utilize TypeScript and Sass code. This code needs to be converted into web browser friendly code. A build process is required to achieve this. @ionic/app-scripts are a set of configurable scripts provided to make it easy to create a simple or a highly customized build process.

How does it work?

Ionic app’s are developed typically using the ionic serve and ionic cordova run commands. Both of these commands need to compile the application’s code and combine it into one bundled file.

When ionic serve or ionic cordova run are invoked, it ultimately calls an NPM script. These npm scripts call the @ionic/app-scripts library to execute the build process.

Why App Scripts?

Most application’s share a similar build process. Rather than have each user create their own build process from scratch for their app, we thought that time would be better spent building out their Ionic app and leaving the details to us. This is our interpretation of what most users need from a build process.

What About Gulp?

Historically Ionic apps have used gulp as tool to facilitate the build process. Over the years, gulp has seen less and less development, and has started to accumulate deprecation warnings. By taking advantage of standard and dependency free NPM scripts, we are reducing dependencies and simplifying the development experience.

Note: Developers are free to still use gulp if they choose to do so. We think NPM scripts are a better approach, but there is nothing in place restricting the use of gulp if that is the preferred method.

What Scripts are Provided?

@ionic/app-scripts provides the following scripts:

Providing Custom Build Configuration

The default configured provided by @ionic/app-scripts covers many of the scenarios required by developers. However, if a developer wants to customize and configure the way the build process is run, they can do so.

The easiest way to configure @ionic/app-scripts is to take advantage of the config option in the package.json file.

To get started, add a config entry to the package.json file. From there, developers can provide their own configuration file for things like minification (closure compiler, uglify2), and bundling (rollup).

See an example of specifying a custom configuration file below:

  "config": {
    "ionic_rollup": "./config/rollup.config.js",
    "ionic_cleancss": "./config/cleancss.config.js",

In the above example, custom configurations for rollup and cleancss are provided by a path to a config file.

The following config values are used to map to a task’s config file.

Config File NPM Config Property
CleanCss ionic_cleancss
Closure Compiler ionic_closure
Copy ionic_copy
NGC ionic_ngc
Rollup ionic_rollup
Sass ionic_sass
TSLint ionic_tslint
UglifyJS ionic_uglifyjs

The default configurations are great examples to learn about customization options.

Note: Command line flags can also be used to provide custom configuration.

Custom Project Structure

In most cases, the default project structure provided by Ionic works great! However, if a developer chooses to modify the structure to suit their use case, they are welcome to do so.

Using the same concepts outlined above for providing configuration using the package.json config option, developers can specify their own custom project structure.

Config Values NPM Config Property Defaults
root directory ionic_root_dir process.cwd()
tmp directory ionic_tmp_dir .tmp
src directory ionic_src_dir src
www directory ionic_www_dir www
build directory ionic_build_dir build

Ionic Environment Variable

An environment variable, IONIC_ENV is available in the build process to help determining whether a build is a development build, or a production build. The environment variable can be accessed like this:

if (process.env.IONIC_ENV === 'prod') {
  console.log('we got a production buildp');
} else {
  console.log('we got a development build');

Task Details


Ionic uses a tool called Rollup to combine multiple javascript files into one combined file. This process is often called bundling code for deployment.

Third Party Modules Export Errors

When using third party libraries in your code, sometimes Rollup needs additional information about the structure of the library code. Most of the time everything “Just Works”. In rare cases, libraries get too clever in how they’re exporting data, so we need to to tell Rollup what is being exported. This process is called providing a namedExport.

If you have an error message that looks something like this, continue on.

bundle failed:  Module myApp/node_modules/js-extend/extend.js does not export extend (imported by myApp/node_modules/pouchdb/lib/

The best way to do this is to follow the steps above to create a custom rollup config file. To get started with that, open the project’s package.json file. If it doesn’t already exist, create a node at the root level for config, and then add a key for ionic_rollup as follows

"config": {
  "ionic_rollup": "./scripts/rollup.config.js"

The custom rollup config file will live in a scripts folder at the root of the Ionic app. The file will be called rollup.config.js in this example.

The easiest way to fill out the Rollup config is to start with the existing Rollup config. Open node_modules/@ionic/app-scripts/config/rollup.config.js and copy and paste the file content into scripts/rollup.config.js.

Now that the config file is in good shape, let’s fix the error from above. In this example, we tried to install the super cool library pouchdb. In our error message, we can see that pouchdb’s lib/ file is trying to import extend from the library js-extend, resulting in an error.

This error basically says that Rollup does not think that js-extend exports anything called extend. The solution to the problem is we need to tell Rollup that js-extend does in fact export extend.

Here is the default set of Rollup plugins

plugins: [

In the Rollup config, we want to look for the commonjs plugin, and add an entry to the namedExports field.

  namedExports: {
    // pouchdb
    'node_modules/js-extend/extend.js': ['extend']

Let’s break down the namedExport further.

Our original error message looked like this

bundle failed:  Module myApp/node_modules/js-extend/extend.js does not export extend (imported by myApp/node_modules/pouchdb/lib/

The error message has a reference to myApp/node_modules/js-extend/extend.js. It also has a reference to an export called extend.

In the namedExport entry, we can leave off myApp, but include the rest of the path as the entry’s key. The entry’s value is then an array of strings, in this case a lone entry of extend.

Providing the namedExports will resolve any third party library issues the vast majority of time.

Strict Mode

Ionic Apps (and any app that utilizes modern javascript) are written in something called strict mode by default. Most of the time, developers don’t need to be concerned with this. If a third party library is written without strict mode support, disabling strict mode in the Rollup config can be done. One popular library that requires strictMode to be false is Firebase.

Script Tag Include

If all else fails and a library simply cannot be bundled, it can always be included in an app via an HTML <script> tag. This is how libraries were managed for the past twenty years, and it still works very well.

To access the library from an Ionic Page or Component, make a declare statement and create a variable. See an example below with jQuery.

declare const jQuery:any;

When jQuery is included in a web browser, it can be accessed from window.jQuery. In the above example, we’re mapping jQuery to the window.jQuery object. From here, jQuery can be used through the TypeScript code without issue.